Farming

FARMING

Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation,
green manure, compost, and biological pest control.

What is organic farming?

Our definition of organic farming recognises the direct connection between our health and how the food we eat is produced. Artificial fertilisers are banned and farmers develop fertile soil by rotating crops and using compost, manure and clover.Strict regulations, known as ‘standards’, define what organic farmers can and cannot do – and place a strong emphasis on the protection of wildlife and the environment.Taking its name from the organic matter that farmers use as an alternative to synthetic fertilisers, organic farmers take a holistic, principled approach that respects and harnesses the power of natural processes to build positive health across the ecology of the farm. Organic farming methods offer the best, currently available, practical model for addressing climate-friendly food production. This is because it is less dependent on oil-based fertilisers and pesticides and confers resilience in the face of climatic extremes. It also stores higher levels of carbon in the soil, and as a result if organic farming was common practice in the UK, we could offset at least 23% of agriculture's current greenhouse emissions.

Need of organic farming.

With the increase in population our compulsion would be not only to stabilize agricultural production but to increase it further in sustainable manner. The scientists have realized that the ‘Green Revolution’ with high input use has reached a plateau and is now sustained with diminishing return of falling dividends. Thus, a natural balance needs to be maintained at all cost for existence of life and property. The obvious choice for that would be more relevant in the present era, when these agrochemicals which are produced from fossil fuel and are not renewable and are diminishing in availability. It may also cost heavily on our foreign exchange in future.

Why Farm Organically?

The main reasons farmers state for wanting to farm organically are their concerns for the environment and about working with agricultural chemicals in conventional farming systems. There is also an issue with the amount of energy used in agriculture, since many farm chemicals require energy intensive manufacturing processes that rely heavily on fossil fuels. Organic farmers find their method of farming to be profitable and personally rewarding.

Organic Farming Methods.

No matter how much a man progresses, agriculture is an occupation that was, is and will always be undertaken since it suffices one of the most important basic needs of the population – Food. Hence, technology is added in this field to find ways to increase agricultural production in order to feed the ever growing demand for food due to the drastic increase in population. Therefore, many new ways and methods are being introduced in this field to harvest and cultivate the best quality crops. Organic farming can be explained as an agricultural method wherein the following techniques are used:

Crop Rotation : A technique to grow various kinds of crops in the same area, according to different seasons, in a sequential manner Green Manure : Refers to the dying plants that are uprooted and stuffed into the soil in order to make them act as a nutrient for the soil to increase its quality Biological Pest Control : A method in which living organisms are used to control pests, without or with limited use of chemicals Compost : Highly rich in nutrients, this is a recycled organic matter used as a fertilizer in the agricultural farms

Contract Farming

Contract Farming is an institutional arrangements in which bothproducers and the processors/exporters enter into a contract tosupply and purchase, respectively, a specified quantum ofcommodity, at a pre-determined price and for a specified periodof time.Contract farming can be defined as agricultural production carried out according to an agreement between a buyer and farmers, which establishes conditions for the production and marketing of a farm product or products. Typically, the farmer agrees to provide agreed quantities of a specific agricultural product. These should meet the quality standards of the purchaser and be supplied at the time determined by the purchaser. In turn, the buyer commits to purchase the product and, in some cases, to support production through, for example, the supply of farm inputs, land preparation and the provision of technical advice.

Historical Background

For the first time it was introduced in Taiwan in 1895 by Japanese government In India it was introduced by Pepsi company for the cultivation of vegetables particularly tomato and potato in Hosiarpur taluk of Rajasthan in 1927 In Karnataka contract farming was started with the cultivation of gherkin in 20th century

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Nature Of The Contract Farming

The farming contracts may fall into three categories Market specification contracts :- are pre harvest agreement that bind the processing firm and the growth to a particular set of conditions governing the sale of the crop. These conditions often specify price, quality and timing. Resource –Providing Contracts :- obliges the processor to supply crop inputs, extension or credit, in exchange for a marketing agreement. Production management contracts – binds the farmer to fallow a particular production method a input regimen, usually in exchange for a marketing agreement or resource provision.

Why Contract Farming ?

To reduce the load on the central & state level procurement system.To increase private sector investment in agriculture. To bring about a market focus in terms of crop selection by Indian farmers.To generate a steady source of income at the individual farmer level.To promote processing & value addition.To generate gainful employment in rural communities, particularly for landless agricultural labour.To flatten as far as possible, any seasonality associated with such employment.To reduce migration from ruralto urban areas.To promote rural self-reliance in general by pooling locally available resources & expertise to meet new challenges.

The Advantages Of Contract Farming

Exposure To World Class Mechanised Agro Technology.Obtains An Assured Up Front Price & Market Outlet For His Produce.No Requirement To Grade Fruit, As Mandatory For Fresh Market Sale.Bulk Supplies Versus Small Lots As Again Reqd By The Fresh Market. Crop Monitoring On A Regular Basis. Technical Advice, Free Of Cost At His Doorstep. Supplies Of Healthy Disease Free Nursery,Agricultural Implements,Technical Bulletins Etc.Remunerative Returns

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